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  • Why modified carbon nanotubes can help the reproducibility problem
    Scientists have conducted an in-depth study on how carbon nanotubes with oxygen-containing groups can be used to greatly enhance the performance of perovskite solar cells. The newly discovered self-recrystallization ability of perovskite could lead to improvement of low-cost and efficient perovskite solar cells.
  • Deep learning method transforms shapes
    Called LOGAN, the deep neural network, i.e., a machine of sorts, can learn to transform the shapes of two different objects, for example, a chair and a table, in a natural way, without seeing any paired transforms between the shapes.
  • A new discovery: How our memories stabilize while we sleep
    Scientists have shown that delta waves emitted while we sleep are not generalized periods of silence during which the cortex rests, as has been described for decades in the scientific literature. Instead, they isolate assemblies of neurons that play an essential role in long-term memory formation.
  • Potato as effective as carbohydrate gels for boosting athletic performance, study finds
    Consuming potato puree during prolonged exercise works just as well as a commercial carbohydrate gel in sustaining blood glucose levels and boosting performance in trained athletes, scientists report.
  • Candidate Ebola vaccine still effective when highly diluted, macaque study finds
    A single dose of a highly diluted VSV-Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine -- approximately one-millionth of what is in the vaccine being used to help control the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo -- remains fully protective against disease in experimentally infected monkeys, according to scientists. The investigators completed the dosage study using cynomolgus macaques and an updated vaccine component to match the EBOV Makona strain that circulated in West Africa from 2014-16.
  • Cutting-edge neuroethics with ground-breaking neurotechnologies
    Scientists are developing powerful new devices and technologies to monitor and regulate brain activity. To ensure NIH keeps pace with rapid technological development and help clinicians and researchers ethically fit these new tools into practice, a new article highlights potential issues around and offers recommendations about clinical research with both invasive and noninvasive neural devices.
  • Stress in the powerhouse of the cell
    Researchers discover a new principle -- how cells protect themselves from mitochondrial defects.
  • Flexible, wearable supercapacitors based on porous nanocarbon nanocomposites
    Evening gowns with interwoven LEDs may look extravagant, but the light sources need a constant power supply from devices that are as well wearable, durable, and lightweight. Chinese scientists have manufactured fibrous electrodes for wearable devices that are flexible and excel by their high energy density. A microfluidic technology was key for the preparation of the electrode material was a microfluidic technology, as shown in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
  • Genes linked to sex ratio and male fertility in mice
    Researchers find genes that help maintain the 50-50 balance between male and female offspring in mice -- and that have major implications for male infertility.
  • Climate: Uncertainty in scientific predictions can help and harm credibility
    The ways climate scientists explain their predictions about the impact of global warming can either promote or limit their persuasiveness.
  • A new stable form of plutonium discovered
    Scientists have found a new compound of plutonium with an unexpected, pentavalent oxidation state. This new phase of plutonium is solid and stable, and may be a transient phase in radioactive waste repositories.
  • All plastic waste could become new, high-quality plastic through advanced steam cracking
    A research group has developed an efficient process for breaking down any plastic waste to a molecular level. The resulting gases can then be transformed back into new plastics - of the same quality as the original. The new process could transform today's plastic factories into recycling refineries, within the framework of their existing infrastructure.
  • Easy at-home assessment of teeth grinding in sleep
    An easy-to-use electrode set can assess sleep bruxism severity as well as a conventional polysomnography, a new study shows.
  • Lifestyle is a threat to gut bacteria: Ötzi proves it, study shows
    The evolution of dietary and hygienic habits in Western countries is associated with a decrease in the bacteria that help in digestion. These very bacteria were also found in the Iceman, who lived 5300 years ago, and are still present in non-Westernized populations in various parts of the world. The depletion of the microbiome may be associated with the increased prevalence, in Western countries, of complex conditions like allergies, autoimmune and gastrointestinal diseases, obesity.
  • Preventing streptococci infections
    Researchers have discovered an enzyme they believe could be key to preventing Group A Streptococcus infections that cause more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The enzyme works through a novel mechanism of action that can also be found in other streptococcal species, increasing the impact and relevance of this finding.
  • Origin and chemical makeup of Saturn's Moon Titan's dunes
    Astronomers exposed acetylene ice -- a chemical that is used on Earth in welding torches and exists at Titan's equatorial regions -- at low temperatures to proxies of high-energy galactic cosmic rays.
  • Researchers call for responsible development of synthetic biology
    Engineering biology is transforming technology and science. Researchers outline the technological advances needed to secure a safe, responsible future.
  • A higher resolution image of human lung development
    Researchers provide clearer picture of how lungs develop and discover novel markers to differentiate populations of lung cells implicated in lung diseases of premature babies.
  • Paving a way to achieve unexplored semiconductor nanostructures
    A research team paved a way to achieve unexplored III-V semiconductor nanostructures. They grew branched GaAs nanowires with a nontoxic Bi element employing characteristic structural modifications correlated with metallic droplets, as well as crystalline defects and orientations. The finding provides a rational design concept for the creation of semiconductor nanostructures with the concentration of constituents beyond the fundamental limit, making it potentially applicable to novel efficient near-infrared devices and quantum electronics.
  • A compound effective to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells identified
    A compound effective in killing chemotherapy-resistant glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) has been identified, raising hopes of producing drugs capable of eradicating refractory tumors with low toxicity.
  • Croissant making inspires renewable energy solution
    The art of croissant making has inspired researchers to find a solution to a sustainable energy problem.
  • Newly discovered virus infects bald eagles across America
    Researchers have discovered a previously unknown virus infecting nearly a third of America's bald eagle population. Scientists found the virus while searching for the cause of Wisconsin River Eagle Syndrome, an enigmatic disease endemic to bald eagles near the Lower Wisconsin River. The newly identified bald eagle hepacivirus, or BeHV, may contribute to the fatal disease, which causes eagles to stumble and have seizures.
  • New clinical research offers possibility of future rehabilitation for patients in minimally conscious or vegetative state
    Non-invasive brain stimulation is to be trialled for the first time alongside advanced brain imaging techniques in patients who are minimally conscious or in a vegetative state.
  • Big data technique reveals previously unknown capabilities of common materials
    Researchers have found a new way to optimize nickel by unlocking properties that could enable numerous applications, from biosensors to quantum computing.
  • Region, age, and sex decide who gets arthritis-linked 'fabella' knee bone
    The once-rare 'fabella' bone has made a dramatic resurgence in human knees, but who's likely to have a fabella or two -- and why?
  • Variation in transplant centers' use of less-than-ideal organs
    In 2010-2016, many US transplant centers commonly accepted deceased donor kidneys with less desirable characteristics. The use of these organs varied widely across transplant centers, however, and differences were not fully explained by the size of waitlists or the availability of donor organs.
  • Health care intervention: Treating high-need, high-cost patients
    Patients with complex needs -- serious mental and physical health problems and substance use disorders -- flock to emergency rooms costing the health care system billions every year. A new study suggests a nontraditional approach to these patients can significantly improve their daily functioning and health outcomes.
  • New study uncovers 'magnetic' memory of European glass eels
    A new study has found that European glass eels use their magnetic sense to 'imprint' a memory of the direction of water currents in the estuary where they become juveniles.
  • When added to gene therapy, plant-based compound may enable faster, more effective treatments
    Today's standard process for administering gene therapy is expensive and time-consuming -- a result of the many steps required to deliver the healthy genes into the patients' blood stem cells to correct a genetic problem. Scientists believe they have found a way to sidestep some of the current difficulties, resulting in a more efficient gene delivery method that would save money and improve treatment outcomes.
  • Easy-to-use technique to measure the hydrophobicity of micro- and nanoparticle
    The technique may have a far-reaching implication for many scientific and industrial applications and disciplines that involve particulate matter.
  • A simpler way to make some medicines
    Organic chemists have figured out how to synthesize the most common molecule arrangement in medicine, a scientific discovery that could change the way a number of drugs -- including one most commonly used to treat ovarian cancer -- are produced. Their discovery, published today in the journal Chem, gives drug makers a crucial building block for creating medicines that, so far, are made with complex processes that result in a lot of waste.
  • Research gauges neurodegeneration tied to FXTAS by measuring motor behavior
    Researchers used a grip-force test to analyze sensorimotor function in people with the FMR1 premutation, with the aim of determining FXTAS risk and severity.
  • Male and female mice have different brain cells
    Scientists discover that a brain region known to control sex and violence contains rare cell types that differ in male versus female mice.
  • Mapping global biodiversity change
    A new study which focuses on mapping biodiversity change in marine and land ecosystems shows that loss of biodiversity is most prevalent in the tropic, with changes in marine ecosystems outpacing those on land.
  • Stranded whales detected from space
    A new technique for analysing satellite images may help scientists detect and count stranded whales from space. Researchers tested a new detection method using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images of the biggest mass stranding of baleen whales yet recorded. It is hoped that in the future the technique will lead to real-time information as stranding events happen.
  • Fundamental insight into how memory changes with age
    New research could help explain why memory in old age is much less flexible than in young adulthood. Through experiments in mice the researchers discovered that there were dramatic differences in how memories were stored in old age, compared to young adulthood.
  • Blanket of light may give better quantum computers
    Researchers describe how -- by simple means -- they have created a 'carpet' of thousands of quantum-mechanically entangled light pulses. The discovery has the potential to pave the way for more powerful quantum computers.
  • Analysis of recent Ridgecrest, California earthquake sequence reveals complex, damaging fault systems
    Geophysicists complete their analysis of a well-documented seismic event that held many surprises.
  • Targeted therapy to help children with deadly nerve cancer
    Researchers have identified a targeted therapy for adolescent patients with neuroblastoma, a deadly pediatric nerve cancer, who would otherwise have no treatment options, according to a new study.
  • Phylogenetic analysis forces rethink of termite evolution
    Despite their important ecological role as decomposers, termites are often overlooked in research. Evolutionary biologists have constructed a new family tree for this unassuming insect brood, shedding unexpected light on its evolutionary history.
  • Highest throughput 3D printer is the future of manufacturing
    Researchers have developed a new, futuristic 3D printer that is so big and so fast it can print an object the size of an adult human in just a couple of hours.
  • Ancient stars shed light on Earth's similarities to other planets
    Earth-like planets may be common in the universe, a new study implies. The team of astrophysicists and geochemists presents new evidence that the Earth is not unique.
  • First scientific description of elusive bird illuminates plight of Borneo's forests
    Scientists surveying the birdlife of Borneo have discovered a startling surprise: an undescribed species of bird, which has been named the spectacled flowerpecker. While scientists and birdwatchers have previously glimpsed the small, gray bird in lowland forests around the island, the Smithsonian team is the first to capture and study it, resulting in its formal scientific description as a new species.
  • Stem cell study offers new way to study early development and pregnancy
    For the first time, researchers have created mouse blastocyst-like structures, or 'blastoids,' from a single cultured cell. The work could help advance research into development as well as inform issues around pregnancy, infertility, or health problems later in the offspring's life.
  • Newly discovered microbes band together, 'flip out'
    Scientists have found a new species of choanoflagellate. This close relative of animals forms sheets of cells that 'flip' inside-out in response to light, alternating between a cup-shaped feeding form and a ball-like swimming form. The organism could offer clues about animals' early evolution.
  • BARseq builds a better brain map
    A brain mapping technique called BARseq is capable of mapping thousands of neurons in a single mouse, at single neuron resolution, while also detailing which neuron expresses what genes. It could be a game-changer for how neuroscientists look at brains.
  • Weaving quantum processors out of laser light
    Researchers open a new avenue to quantum computing with a breakthrough experiment: a large-scale quantum processor made entirely of light.
  • Parasite paralysis: A new way to fight schistosomiasis?
    Scientists have isolated a natural chemical that acts as a potent kryptonite against parasitic worms that burrow through human skin and cause devastating health problems. Researchers now describe the successful characterization of this chemical, which could help in finding new ways to fight the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis.
  • Cystic fibrosis carriers at increased risk of digestive symptoms
    Researchers have found that carriers of the most common genetic variant that causes cystic fibrosis experience some symptoms similar to those of people with cystic fibrosis. These findings were enabled by large-scale genomic data made available just a few years ago.
  • An evolution in the understanding of evolution
    An engineering professor and her former Ph.D. student share a new, more accurate method for modeling evolutionary change.
  • Museums put ancient DNA to work for wildlife
    Scientists who are trying to save species at the brink of extinction are finding help in an unexpected place. Researchers increasingly are embracing the power of ancient DNA from old museum specimens to answer questions about climate change, habitat loss and other stresses on surviving populations.
  • Industrial melanism linked to same gene in 3 moth species
    The rise of dark forms of many species of moth in heavily polluted areas of 19th and 20th century Britain, known as industrial melanism, was a highly visible response to environmental change. But did the different species rely on the same gene to adapt? New research by the University of Liverpool reveals that three species of moth, including the famous peppered moth, indeed did.
  • Assigning workers to new networks boosts sustainability
    Innovation comes from people in different units who have new knowledge, and a new study about conservation organizations suggests encouraging employees to think and act outside network boxes from time to time.
  • How aerosols affect our climate
    Greenhouse gases may get more attention, but aerosols -- from car exhaust to volcanic eruptions -- also have a major impact on the Earth's climate. Using a massive NASA dataset, researchers have created a framework that helps explain just how sensitive local temperatures are to aerosols.
  • Scientists unwind mystery behind DNA replication
    The molecules of life are twisted. But how those familiar strands in DNA's double helix manage to replicate without being tangled up has been hard to decipher. A new perspective from physicists is helping unravel the mystery.
  • New insights into the structure and function of Cdc34, a target for cancer therapeutics
    Researchers report they have obtained 3D structural snapshots of Cdc34 in action. Cdc34 is an enzyme important for cell cycle regulation and a target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. These structures, along with studies in human cells, have revealed key features of this enzyme important for its regulation of cell growth and activity. These unique features could present opportunities for rational design of novel cancer therapeutics.
  • Darn you, R2! When can we blame robots?
    A recent study finds that people are likely to blame robots for workplace accidents, but only if they believe the robots are autonomous.
  • Near misses on slot machines may not encourage continued gambling
    For nearly 70 years, researchers believed that near-miss events like these would encourage you to continue gambling. But new research suggests that the near-miss effect may not exist at all.
  • Evidence of behavioral, biological similarities between compulsive overeating and addiction
    Does yo-yo dieting drive compulsive eating? There may be a connection. According to researchers the chronic cyclic pattern of overeating followed by undereating, reduces the brain's ability to feel reward and may drive compulsive eating. This finding suggests that future research into treatment of compulsive eating behavior should focus on rebalancing the mesolimbic dopamine system -- the part of the brain responsible for feeling reward or pleasure.
  • Fingerprints of Earth's original building blocks discovered in diamond-bearing rocks
    Scientists have detected primordial chemical signatures preserved within modern kimberlites, according to new research. The results provide critical insight for understanding the formation of Earth.

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