ScienceTank

New Photo Shows Pluto’s ‘Heart’ Actually A Vast, Frozen Wasteland

Here’s How Far Our Music Has Traveled Into Deep Space

  • New super-resolution method reveals fine details without constantly needing to zoom in
    Since the early 1930s, electron microscopy has provided unprecedented access to the alien world of the extraordinarily small, revealing intricate details that are otherwise impossible to discern with conventional light microscopy. But to achieve high resolution over a large specimen area, the energy of the electron beams needs to be cranked up, which is costly and detrimental to the specimen under observation.
  • New study suggests ADHD- like behavior helps spur entrepreneurial activity
    Many people have experienced a few nights of bad sleep that resulted in shifting attention spans, impulsive tendencies and hyperactivity the next day -- all behaviors resembling ADHD. A new study found that this dynamic may also be linked to increased entrepreneurial behavior.
  • Swallowing this colonoscopy-like bacteria grabber could reveal secrets about your health
    Your gut bacteria could say a lot about you, such as why you're diabetic or how you respond to certain drugs. But scientists can see only so much of the gastrointestinal tract to study the role of gut bacteria in your health. Researchers built a way to swallow a tool that acts like a colonoscopy, except that instead of looking at the colon with a camera, the technology takes samples of bacteria.
  • Programmed bacteria have something extra
    Chemists expand the genetic code of Escherichia coli bacteria to produce a synthetic building block, a 'noncanonical amino acid' that makes it a living indicator for oxidative stress. The research is a step toward designed cells that detect disease and produce their own drugs.
  • 'Reelin' in a new treatment for multiple sclerosis
    In an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), decreasing the amount of a protein made in the liver significantly protected against development of the disease's characteristic symptoms and promoted recovery in symptomatic animals, scientists report.
  • Time-shifted inhibition helps electric fish ignore their own signals
    African fish called mormyrids communicate using pulses of electricity. New research shows that a time-shifted signal in the brain helps the fish to ignore their own pulse. This skill has co-evolved with large and rapid changes in these signals across species.
  • Lack of females in drug dose trials leads to overmedicated women
    Women are more likely than men to suffer adverse side effects of medications because drug dosages have historically been based on clinical trials conducted on men, suggests new research.
  • New generation of drugs show early efficacy against drug-resistant TB
    New drug regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis shows early effectiveness in 85 percent of patients in a cohort including many with serious comorbidities. The results suggest a global need for expanded access to two recently developed medicines, bedaquiline and delamanid. Study cohort included many people who would have been excluded from trials because of comorbidities, severity of disease or extent of drug resistance. Findings highlight the importance of innovative regimens to improve outcomes for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
  • Researchers identify a protein that may help SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly through cells
    New research identifies a protein encoded by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, that may be associated with the quick spread of the virus through cells in the human body.
  • Improving treatment of spinal cord injuries
    Bioengineers have created an osmotic therapy device that gently removes fluid from the spinal cord to reduce swelling in injured rats with good results. The device can eventually be scaled up for testing in humans.
  • Human milk based fortifiers improve health outcomes for the smallest premature babies
    More than 380,000 babies are born prematurely in the United States each year, according to the March of Dimes. 'Preemies' can be severely underweight babies and struggle to get the nutrients they need from breast milk alone, so neonatal intensive care units provide an additional milk fortifier, either in the form of cow's milk or manufactured from donor breast milk, to keep them healthy.
  • Mutations may have saved brown howlers from yellow fever virus
    From 2007 to 2009, a devastating yellow fever virus outbreak nearly decimated brown and black and gold howler monkey populations at El Parque El Piñalito in northeastern Argentina. An international research team tested if howlers who survived the outbreak had any genetic variations that may have kept them alive. In brown howlers, they found two mutations on immune genes that resulted in amino acid changes in the part of the protein that detects the disease.
  • Young children would rather explore than get rewards
    Young children will pass up rewards they know they can collect to explore other options, a new study suggests. Researchers found that when adults and 4- to 5-year-old children played a game where certain choices earned them rewards, both adults and children quickly learned what choices would give them the biggest returns. But while adults then used that knowledge to maximize their prizes, children continued exploring the other options.
  • Study provides insights into how Zika virus suppresses the host immune system
    A research team has outlined how the Zika virus, which constituted an epidemic threat in 2016, suppresses the immune system of its host. The work provides valuable structural and functional information on the interaction between ZIKV and its host and offers a framework for the development of vaccines and antivirals.
  • A novel strategy for quickly identifying twitter trolls
    Two algorithms that account for distinctive use of repeated words and word pairs require as few as 50 tweets to accurately distinguish deceptive 'troll' messages from those posted by public figures.
  • Coffee stains inspire optimal printing technique for electronics
    Using an alcohol mixture, researchers modified how ink droplets dry, enabling cheap industrial-scale printing of electronic devices at unprecedented scales.
  • Why black rhinos may get sick in captivity
    Inflammation and oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of iron overload disorder in captive black rhinoceroses, making this syndrome a potential common denominator to various diseases described in captivity in this species, according to a new study.
  • The oldest known cremation in the Near East dates to 7000 BC
    Ancient people in the Near East had begun the practice of intentionally cremating their dead by the beginning of the 7th millennium BC, according to a new study.
  • Yoga shown to improve anxiety, study shows
    A new study finds yoga improves symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, suggesting the popular practice may be helpful in treating anxiety in some people.
  • Researchers unlock secrets of the past with new international carbon dating standard
    Radiocarbon dating is set to become more accurate than ever after an international team of scientists improved the technique for assessing the age of historical objects.
  • Oxygen therapy harms lung microbiome in mice
    A new mouse study hints that oxygen therapy may have unintended consequences via an unexpected source -- the microbiome.
  • Trustful collaboration critical for outcome of therapy
    A trusting therapeutic relationship and outcome-oriented collaboration between therapist and patient are critical for the successful treatment of mental illness. And it pays to start early in therapy, a series of meta-studies shows.
  • How stars form in the smallest galaxies
    The question of how small, dwarf galaxies have sustained the formation of new stars over the course of the Universe has long confounded the world's astronomers. An international research team has found that dormant small galaxies can slowly accumulate gas over many billions of years. When this gas suddenly collapses under its own weight, new stars are able to arise.
  • Seafood study finds plastic in all samples
    A study of five different seafoods has found traces of plastic in every sample tested.
  • Warming threat to tropical forests risks release of carbon from soil
    Billions of tons of carbon dioxide risk being lost into the atmosphere due to tropical forest soils being significantly more sensitive to climate change than previously thought.
  • New way to check the quality of nanomaterials like graphene
    A new way to check the quality of nanomaterials like graphene has emerged.
  • Nutrition labelling is improving nation's diet
    Households eat more healthily when retailers display clear nutritional information on own-brand food products, say researchers.
  • Exercise induces secretion of biomarkers into sweat
    The aim was to reveal the potential of microRNAs in sweat extracellular vesicles in monitoring exercise performance.
  • Porous liquids allow for efficient gas separation
    Scientists have developed 'porous liquids': Nanoparticles, that are able to separate gas molecules of different sizes from each other, float - finely distributed - in a solvent. The porous liquids may be processed into membranes that efficiently separate propene from gaseous mixtures. This could replace the energy-intensive distillation that has been the common procedure up to now.
  • TV-watching snackers beware: You won't notice you're full if your attention is elsewhere
    Eating while doing something perceptually-demanding makes it more difficult to notice when you feel full, shows new research.
  • New advance in superconductors with 'twist' in rhombohedral graphite
    An international research team has revealed a nanomaterial that mirrors the 'magic angle' effect originally found in a complex human-made structure known as twisted bilayer graphene -- a key area of study in physics in recent years.
  • Spider silk inspires new class of functional synthetic polymers
    Synthetic polymers have changed the world around us. However, It is hard to finely tune some of their properties, such as the ability to transport ions. To overcome this problem, researchers decided to take inspiration from nature and created a new class of polymers based on protein-like materials that work as proton conductors and might be useful in future bio-electronic devices.
  • Adaptation in single neurons provides memory for language processing
    To understand language, we have to remember the words that were uttered and combine them into an interpretation. How does the brain retain information long enough to accomplish this, despite the fact that neuronal firing events are very short-lived? Researchers propose a neurobiological explanation bridging this discrepancy. Neurons change their spike rate based on experience and this adaptation provides memory for sentence processing.
  • Selective conversion of reactive lithium compounds made possible
    Researchers have developed a new catalyst that can catalyze reactions to produce pharmaceuticals or chemicals used in agriculture. It creates carbon-carbon bonds between what are known as organolithium compounds without creating any unwanted by-products.
  • Stress and anger may exacerbate heart failure
    Mental stress and anger may have clinical implications for patients with heart failure, according to a new report.
  • New nitrogen products are in the air
    Researchers have found a way to combine atmospheric nitrogen with benzene to make a chemical compound called aniline, which is a precursor to materials used to make an assortment of synthetic products.
  • Quantum researchers create an error-correcting cat
    Physicists have developed an error-correcting cat -- a new device that combines the Schrödinger's cat concept of superposition (a physical system existing in two states at once) with the ability to fix some of the trickiest errors in a quantum computation.
  • Face mask insert could help diagnose conditions
    Researchers have demonstrated that a fiber inserted into an ordinary N95 face mask can collect compounds in exhaled breath aerosols for analysis. The new method could allow screening for disease biomarkers on a large scale.
  • Engaging undergrads remotely with an escape room game
    Researchers describe an alternative way to engage students: a virtual game, modeled on an escape room, in which teams solve chemistry problems to progress and 'escape.'
  • Soldiers could teach future robots how to outperform humans
    Researchers have designed an algorithm that allows an autonomous ground vehicle to improve its existing navigation systems by watching a human drive.
  • Efficient valves for electron spins
    Researchers have developed a new concept that uses the electron spin to switch an electrical current. In addition to fundamental research, such spin valves are also the key elements in spintronics -- a type of electronics that exploits the spin instead of the charge of electrons.
  • Internal differences: A new method for seeing into cells
    The new technology may help answer outstanding questions about the immune system, cancer, Alzheimer's, and more.
  • A quick, cost-effective method to track the spread of COVID-19 through untreated wastewater
    Researchers have demonstrated that, from seven methods commonly used to test for viruses in untreated wastewater, an adsorption-extraction technique can most efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2.
  • Upcycling plastic waste toward sustainable energy storage
    Engineering professors and their students have been working for years on creating improved energy storage materials from sustainable sources, such as glass bottles, beach sand, Silly Putty, and portabella mushrooms. Now they have turned plastic soda bottles into a nanomaterial for use in batteries. Though they don't store as much energy as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors made with the material can charge much faster.
  • Collaboration is key to rebuilding coral reefs
    The most successful and cost-effective ways to restore coral reefs have been identified by an international group of scientists, after analyzing restoration projects in Latin America.
  • Australian Indigenous banana cultivation found to go back over 2,000 years
    Archaeologists have found the earliest evidence of Indigenous communities cultivating bananas in Australia. The evidence of cultivation and plant management dates back 2,145 years and was found at Wagadagam on the tiny island of Mabuyag in the western Torres Strait.
  • Perovskite and organic solar cells rocketed into space
    Researchers have sent perovskite and organic solar cells on a rocket into space. The solar cells withstood the extreme conditions in space, producing power from direct sunlight and reflective light from the Earth's surface. The work sets the foundation for future near-Earth application as well as potential deep space missions.
  • Evidence in mice that electroacupuncture reduces inflammation via specific neural pathways
    Stimulating the nervous system using small electric current by acupuncture could tamp down systemic inflammation in the body, suggests new research in mice.
  • Nanotubes in the eye that help us see
    A new mechanism of blood redistribution that is essential for the proper functioning of the adult retina has just been discovered in vivo.
  • Quantum materials quest could benefit from graphene that buckles
    Graphene buckles when cooled while attached to a flat surface, resulting in pucker patterns that could benefit the search for novel quantum materials and superconductors, according to new research.
  • Extremely young galaxy is Milky Way look-alike
    Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have revealed an extremely distant and therefore very young galaxy that looks surprisingly like our Milky Way. The galaxy is so far away its light has taken more than 12 billion years to reach us: we see it as it was when the Universe was just 1.4 billion years old. It is also surprisingly unchaotic, contradicting theories that all galaxies in the early Universe were turbulent and unstable.
  • Countries transitioning to zero carbon should look at more than technology cost
    A 'one-size-fits-all' approach to producing cleaner energy based on cost alone could create social inequalities, finds a new study.
  • Flipping a metabolic switch to slow tumor growth
    The enzyme serine palmitoyl-transferase can be used as a metabolically responsive 'switch' that decreases tumor growth, according to a new study.
  • Scientists identify hundreds of drug candidates to treat COVID-19
    Scientists have used machine learning to identify hundreds of new potential drugs that could help treat COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2. To identify several candidates, they developed a drug discovery pipeline -- a type of computational strategy linked to artificial intelligence.
  • New way to make bacteria more sensitive to antibiotics discovered
    Researchers have discovered a new way to reverse antibiotic resistance in some bacteria using hydrogen sulphide (H2S). By adding H2S releasing compounds to Acinetobacter baumannii - a pathogenic bacteria that does not produce H2S on its own - they found that exogenous H2S sensitised the A. baumannii to multiple antibiotic classes. It was even able to reverse acquired resistance in A. baumannii to gentamicin.
  • Security gap allows eavesdropping on mobile phone calls
    Calls via the LTE mobile network, also known as 4G, are encrypted and should therefore be tap-proof. However, researchers have shown that this is not always the case. They were able to decrypt the contents of telephone calls if they were in the same radio cell as their target, whose mobile phone they then called immediately following the call they wanted to intercept. They exploit a flaw that some manufacturers had made in implementing the base stations.
  • 'Black dwarf supernova': Physicist calculates when the last supernova ever will happen
    New theoretical research finds that many white dwarfs may explode in supernova in the distant far future, long after everything else in the universe has died and gone quiet.
  • Experimental COVID-19 vaccine prevents severe disease in mice
    Researchers have created a COVID-19 vaccine candidate from a replicating virus. This experimental vaccine has proven effective at preventing pneumonia in mice.
  • How anxiety -- and hope -- can drive new product adoption
    When considering new products, anxiety creates approach response (i.e., interest, purchase) rather than avoidance response (i.e., disinterest, failure to purchase) when consumers hope for the goal-congruent outcomes.
  • Lipoic acid supplements help some obese but otherwise healthy people lose weight
    A compound given as a dietary supplement to overweight but otherwise healthy people in a clinical trial caused many of the patients to slim down.

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